Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg
Albert Einstein in 1921
Pronunciation
Born (1879-03-14)14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955(1955-04-18) (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria (present-day Czech Republic), Belgium, United States
Citizenship
Education
Known for
Spouse(s) Mileva Marić
(m. 1903; div. 1919)

Elsa Löwenthal
(m. 1919; d. 1936)
[2][3]
Children "Lieserl" Einstein
Hans Albert Einstein
Eduard "Tete" Einstein
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Physics, philosophy
Institutions
Thesis Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen (A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions) (1905)
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Other academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Influenced
Signature
Albert Einstein signature 1934.svg

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[4][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known by the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation").[9] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[10] a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields and—with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916—he published a paper on general relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe.[11][12]

Between 1895 and 1914, he lived in Switzerland (except for one year in Prague, 1911–12), where he received his academic diploma from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in 1900. He later taught at that institute as a professor of theoretical physics between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin. In 1901, after being stateless for more than five years, he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for the rest of his life. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zürich. The same year, his annus mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26.

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and—being Jewish—did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1940.[13] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but generally denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, he signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[11][14] His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".[15] Eugene Wigner wrote of Einstein in comparison to his contemporaries that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jansci von Neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original than von Neumann's. And that is a very remarkable statement."[16]

  1. ^ Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 1-4058-8118-6. 
  2. ^ Heilbron, John L., ed. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6. 
  3. ^ Pais (1982), p. 301.
  4. ^ a b c Whittaker, E. (1 November 1955). "Albert Einstein. 1879–1955". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 37–67. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005Freely accessible. JSTOR 769242. 
  5. ^ "Albert Einstein – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2007. 
  6. ^ Fujia Yang; Joseph H. Hamilton (2010). Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4277-16-7. 
  7. ^ Howard, Don A., ed. (2014) [First published 11 February 2004], "Einstein's Philosophy of Science", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (website), The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, retrieved 2015-02-04 
  8. ^ Howard, Don A. (December 2005), "Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF), Physics Today, American Institute of Physics, 58 (12): 34–40, Bibcode:2005PhT....58l..34H, doi:10.1063/1.2169442, retrieved 2015-03-08 – via University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage 
  9. ^ Bodanis, David (2000). E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation. New York: Walker. 
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nobel Prize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ a b Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe (PDF), Nobel Media AB, p. 2, retrieved 2015-01-04 – via Nobelprize.org 
  12. ^ Overbye, Dennis (24 November 2015). "A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything". New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Paul S. Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-508209-8. 
  14. ^ Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed. (1951), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, II, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition), pp. 730–746 . His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  15. ^ Result of WordNet Search for Einstein, 3.1, The Trustees of Princeton University, retrieved 2015-01-04 
  16. ^ The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner, By Eugene Paul Wigner, Andrew Szanton, (Springer, 11 Nov 2013), page 170


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