Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell transparent bg.png
Born Bertrand Arthur William Russell
(1872-05-18)18 May 1872
Trellech, Monmouthshire,[1] United Kingdom
Died 2 February 1970(1970-02-02) (aged 97)
Penrhyndeudraeth, Caernarfonshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Residence United Kingdom
Nationality British
Education Trinity College, Cambridge
(BA, 1893)
Spouse(s) Alys Pearsall Smith (m. 1894–1921)
Dora Black (m. 1921–1935)
Marjorie "Patricia" Spence (m. 1936–1952)[2]
Edith Finch (m. 1952–1970; his death)
Awards De Morgan Medal (1932)
Sylvester Medal (1934)
Nobel Prize in Literature (1950)
Kalinga Prize (1957)
Jerusalem Prize (1963)
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic philosophy
Linguistic turn
Institutions Trinity College, Cambridge, London School of Economics
Main interests
Notable ideas
Bertrand Russell signature.svg

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS[61] (/ˈrʌsəl/; 18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate.[62][63] At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense".[64] Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom.[65]

In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism".[66] He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians.[63] With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy".[67] His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

Russell was a prominent anti-war activist and he championed anti-imperialism.[68][69] Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly had passed and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government.[70] He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I.[71] Later, Russell concluded war against Adolf Hitler was a necessary "lesser of two evils" and criticized Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament.[72] In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought".[73][74]

  1. ^ Monmouthshire's Welsh status was ambiguous at this time.
  2. ^ Irvine, Andrew David (1 January 2015). Zalta, Edward N., ed. Bertrand Russell – The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  3. ^ "Structural Realism": entry by James Ladyman in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  4. ^ Dowe, Phil (10 September 2007). Zalta, Edward N., ed. Causal Processes – The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  5. ^ Ronald Jager (2002). The Development of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy, Volume 11. Psychology Press. pp. 113–114. ISBN 9780415295451. 
  6. ^ Nicholas Griffin, ed. (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Bertrand Russell. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780521636346. 
  7. ^ Roberts, George W. (2013). Bertrand Russell Memorial Volume. Routledge. p. 311. ISBN 9781317833024. 
  8. ^ Rosalind Carey; John Ongley (2009). Historical Dictionary of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy. Scarecrow Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780810862920. 
  9. ^ James Ward (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  10. ^ Schultz, Bart. "Henry Sidgwick". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2015.
  11. ^ Ilkka Niiniluoto (2003). Thomas Bonk, ed. Language, Truth and Knowledge: Contributions to the Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 9781402012068. 
  12. ^ Wolfgang Händler; Dieter Haupt; Rolf Jelitsch; Wilfried Juling; Otto Lange (1986). CONPAR 1986. Springer. p. 15. ISBN 9783540168119. 
  13. ^ Hao Wang (1990). Reflections on Kurt Gödel. MIT Press. p. 305. ISBN 9780262730877. 
  14. ^ Phil Parvin (2013). Karl Popper. C. Black. ISBN 9781623567330. 
  15. ^ Roger F. Gibson, ed. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780521639491. 
  16. ^ Robert F. Barsky (1998). Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. MIT Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780262522557. 
  17. ^ François Cusset (2008). French Theory: How Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, & Co. Transformed the Intellectual Life of the United States. U of Minnesota Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780816647323. 
  18. ^ Alan Berger, ed. (2011). Saul Kripke. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139500661. 
  19. ^ Dov M. Gabbay; Paul Thagard; John Woods; Theo A.F. Kuipers (2007). "The Logical Approach of the Vienna Circle and their Followers from the 1920s to the 1950s". General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues: Focal Issues. Elsevier. p. 432. ISBN 9780080548548. 
  20. ^ Dermot Moran (2012). Husserl's Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780521895361. 
  21. ^ Grattan-Guinness. "Russell and G.H. Hardy: A study of their Relationship". McMaster University Library Press. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  22. ^ Douglas Patterson (2012). Alfred Tarski: Philosophy of Language and Logic. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230367227. 
  23. ^ Rosalind Carey; John Ongley (2009). Historical Dictionary of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy. Scarecrow Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9780810862920. 
  24. ^ Ray Monk (2013). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. Random House LLC. ISBN 9780385504133. 
  25. ^ Anita Burdman Feferman; Solomon Feferman (2004). Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780521802406. 
  26. ^ Andrew Hodges (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780691155647. 
  27. ^ Jacob Bronowski (2008). The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300157185. 
  28. ^ Nicholas Griffin; Dale Jacquette, eds. (2008). Russell vs. Meinong: The Legacy of "On Denoting". Taylor & Francis. p. 4. ISBN 9780203888025. 
  29. ^ Sankar Ghose (1993). "V: Europe Revisited". Jawaharlal Nehru, a Biography. Allied Publishers. p. 46. ISBN 9788170233695. 
  30. ^ "Street-Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties". Verso. p. 2005. 
  31. ^ Michael Albert (2011). Remembering Tomorrow: From SDS to Life After Capitalism: A Memoir. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 9781609800017. 
  32. ^ Jon Lee Anderson (1997). Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780802197252. 
  33. ^ Marc Joseph (2004). "1: Introduction: Davidson's Philosophical Project". Donald Davidson. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. p. 1. ISBN 9780773527812. 
  34. ^ James A. Marcum (2005). "1: Who is Thomas Kuhn?". Thomas Kuhn's Revolution: An Historical Philosophy of Science. Continuum. p. 5. ISBN 9781847141941. 
  35. ^ Nathan Salmon (2007). "Introduction to Volume II". Content, Cognition, and Communication : Philosophical Papers II: Philosophical Papers II. Oxford University Press. p. xi. ISBN 9780191536106. 
  36. ^ Christopher Hitchens, ed. (2007). The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306816086. 
  37. ^ Gregory Landini (2010). Russell. Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 9780203846490. 
  38. ^ Carl Sagan (2006). Ann Druyan, ed. The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God. Penguin. ISBN 9781594201073. 
  39. ^ George Crowder (2004). Isaiah Berlin: Liberty, Pluralism and Liberalism. Polity. p. 15. ISBN 9780745624778. 
  40. ^ Elsie Jones-Smith (2011). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach: An Integrative Approach. SAGE. p. 142. ISBN 9781412910040. 
  41. ^ "Interview with Martin Gardner" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. June–July 2005. p. 603. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  42. ^ Peter S Williams (2013). S Lewis Vs The New Atheists. Authentic Media Inc. ISBN 9781780780931. 
  43. ^ Loretta Lorance; Richard Buckminster Fuller (2009). Becoming Bucky Fuller. MIT Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780262123020. 
  44. ^ K. Sohail (February 2000). "How Difficult it is to Help People Change their Thinking – Interview with Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy". Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2013. 
  45. ^ Bradley W. Bateman; Toshiaki Hirai; Maria Cristina Marcuzzo, eds. (2010). The Return to Keynes. Harvard University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780674053540. 
  46. ^ Isaac Asimov (2009). I.Asimov: A Memoir. Random House LLC. ISBN 9780307573537. 
  47. ^ Paul Kurtz (1994). Vern L. Bullough; Tim Madigan, eds. Toward a New Enlightenment: The Philosophy of Paul Kurtz. Transaction Publishers. p. 233. ISBN 9781412840170. 
  48. ^ John P. Anderson (2000). Finding Joy in Joyce: A Readers Guide to Ulysses. Universal-Publishers. p. 580. ISBN 9781581127621. 
  49. ^ Paul Lee Thomas (2006). Reading, Learning, Teaching Kurt Vonnegut. Peter Lang. p. 46. ISBN 9780820463377. 
  50. ^ Gregory L. Ulmer (2005). Electronic Monuments. U of Minnesota Press. p. 180. ISBN 9780816645831. 
  51. ^ Paul J. Nahin (2011). "9". Number-Crunching: Taming Unruly Computational Problems from Mathematical Physics to Science Fiction. Princeton University Press. p. 332. ISBN 9781400839582. 
  52. ^ Mie Augier; Herbert Alex; er Simon; James G. March, eds. (2004). Models of a Man: Essays in Memory of Herbert A. Simon. MIT Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780262012089. 
  53. ^ William O'Donohue; Kyle E. Ferguson (2001). The Psychology of B F Skinner. SAGE. p. 19. ISBN 9780761917595. 
  54. ^ Gustavo Faigenbaum (2001). Conversations with John Searle. p. 28. ISBN 9789871022113. 
  55. ^ William M. Brinton; Alan Rinzler, eds. (1990). Without Force Or Lies: Voices from the Revolution of Central Europe in 1989–90. Mercury House. p. 37. ISBN 9780916515928. 
  56. ^ David Wilkinson (2001). God, Time and Stephen Hawking. Kregel Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9780825460296. 
  57. ^ Reiner Braun; Robert Hinde; David Krieger; Harold Kroto; Sally Milne, eds. (2007). Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9783527611270. 
  58. ^ Ned Curthoys; Debjani Ganguly, eds. (2007). Edward Said: The Legacy of a Public Intellectual. Academic Monographs. p. 27. ISBN 9780522853575. 
  59. ^ "Frank Wilczek - Biographical". Nobel Media AB 2017. Another thing that shaped my thinking was religious training. I was brought up as a Roman Catholic. I loved the idea that there was a great drama and a grand plan behind existence. Later, under the influence of Bertrand Russell's writings and my increasing awareness of scientific knowledge, I lost faith in conventional religion. 
  60. ^ Azurmendi, Joxe (1999): Txillardegiren saioa: hastapenen bila, Jakin, 114: pp. 17–45. ISSN 0211-495X
  61. ^ Kreisel, G. (1973). "Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell. 1872–1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 19: 583–620. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1973.0021. JSTOR 769574. 
  62. ^ The Life of Bertrand Russell. Knopf. 1976. p. 119. ISBN 9780394490595. He became a relentless political activist during World War I, and throughout his life was an ardent advocate of parliamentary democracy through his support first of the Liberal Party and then of Labour. 
  63. ^ a b Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Bertrand Russell", 1 May 2003
  64. ^ Bertrand Russell. Autobiography. p. 260. ISBN 9780415189859. I have imagined myself in turn a Liberal, a Socialist, or a Pacifist, but I have never been any of these things, in any profound sense. 
  65. ^ Hestler, Anna (2001). Wales. Marshall Cavendish. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7614-1195-6. 
  66. ^ Russell and G. E. Moore broke themselves free from British Idealism which, for nearly 90 years, had dominated British philosophy. Russell would later recall in "My Mental Development" that "with a sense of escaping from prison, we allowed ourselves to think that grass is green, that the sun and stars would exist if no one was aware of them ..."—Russell B, (1944) "My Mental Development", in Schilpp, Paul Arthur: The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, New York: Tudor, 1951, pp. 3–20.
  67. ^ Ludlow, Peter. "Descriptions, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)". 
  68. ^ Richard Rempel (1979). "From Imperialism to Free Trade: Couturat, Halevy and Russell's First Crusade". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 40 (3): 423–443. doi:10.2307/2709246. JSTOR 2709246. 
  69. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1988) [1917]. Political Ideals. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10907-8. 
  70. ^ Russell, Bertrand. "Atomic Weapon and the Prevention of War". Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 2/7-8, (October 1, 1946). p. 20. 
  71. ^ Samoiloff, Louise Cripps. C .L. R. James: Memories and Commentaries, p. 19. Associated University Presses, 1997. ISBN 0-8453-4865-5
  72. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950 — Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950 was awarded to Bertrand Russell "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Retrieved on 22 March 2013.
  73. ^ "British Nobel Prize Winners (1950)". YouTube. 13 April 2014. 

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