Bose–Einstein condensate

Schematic Bose–Einstein condensation versus temperature and the energy diagram

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth the density of normal air, to ultra-low temperatures.

This state was first predicted, generally, in 1924–25 by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein.

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