Gravitational wave

Simulation of the collision of two black holes. In addition to forming deep gravity wells and coalescing into a single larger black hole, gravitational waves will propagate outwards as the black holes spin past each other.

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime that are generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. They were first proposed by Henri Poincaré in 1905[1] and subsequently predicted in 1916[2][3] by Albert Einstein on the basis of his general theory of relativity.[4][5] Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation.[6] Newton's law of universal gravitation, part of classical mechanics, does not provide for their existence, since that law is predicated on the assumption that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed—showing one of the ways the methods of classical physics are unable to explain phenomena associated with relativity.

Gravitational-wave astronomy is a branch of observational astronomy that uses gravitational waves to collect observational data about sources of detectable gravitational waves such as binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; and events such as supernovae, and the formation of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

On 11 February 2016, the LIGO and Virgo Scientific Collaboration announced they had made the first observation of gravitational waves. The observation itself was made on 14 September 2015, using the Advanced LIGO detectors. The gravitational waves originated from a pair of merging black holes.[7][8][9] After the initial announcement the LIGO instruments detected two more confirmed, and one potential, gravitational wave events.[10][11] In August 2017, the two LIGO instruments, and the Virgo instrument, observed a fourth gravitational wave from merging black holes,[12] and a fifth gravitational wave from a binary neutron star merger.[13] Several other gravitational-wave detectors are planned or under construction.[14]

In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish for their role in the detection of gravitational waves.[15][16][17]

  1. ^
  2. ^ Einstein, A (June 1916). "Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin. part 1: 688–696. Bibcode:1916SPAW.......688E. 
  3. ^ Einstein, A (1918). "Über Gravitationswellen". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin. part 1: 154–167. 
  4. ^ Finley, Dave. "Einstein's gravity theory passes toughest test yet: Bizarre binary star system pushes study of relativity to new limits". Phys.Org. 
  5. ^ The Detection of Gravitational Waves using LIGO, B. Barish Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Einstein, Albert; Rosen, Nathan (January 1937). "On gravitational waves". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 223 (1): 43–54. Bibcode:1937FrInJ.223...43E. doi:10.1016/S0016-0032(37)90583-0. Retrieved 2016-05-13. 
  7. ^ Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Witze (11 February 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  8. ^ B. P. Abbott (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. 
  9. ^ "Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein's prediction | NSF - National Science Foundation". Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  10. ^ LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T. (2016-06-15). "GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence". Physical Review Letters. 116 (24): 241103. arXiv:1606.04855Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116x1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241103. PMID 27367379. 
  11. ^ Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X. (2017-06-01). "GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2". Physical Review Letters. 118 (22): 221101. arXiv:1706.01812Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.118v1101A. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.118.221101. PMID 28621973. 
  12. ^ "European detector spots its first gravitational wave". 27 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  13. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration & Virgo Collaboration) (16 October 2017). "GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral". Physical Review Letters. 119 (16). arXiv:1710.05832Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.119p1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.161101. 
  14. ^ "The Newest Search for Gravitational Waves has Begun". LIGO Caltech. LIGO. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC-20171003 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT-20171003 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT-20171003dk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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