Australia

Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133

Commonwealth of Australia
Location of Australia
Capital Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest city Sydney
National language English[N 2]
Demonym
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Sir Peter Cosgrove
Malcolm Turnbull
Barnaby Joyce
Susan Kiefel
Scott Ryan
Tony Smith
Legislature Parliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
3 March 1986
Area
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
0.76
Population
• 2018 estimate
24,821,600[5] (51st)
• 2016 census
23,401,892[6]
• Density
3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
US$1.24 trillion[7] (19th)
• Per capita
US$49,882[7] (17th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
US$1.39 trillion[7] (13th)
• Per capita
US$56,135[7] (10th)
Gini (2012) 33.6[8]
medium · 19th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.939[9]
very high · 2nd
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +10.5)
• Summer (DST)
various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +11.5)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +61
ISO 3166 code AU
Internet TLD .au

Australia (/ɒˈstrliə, ə-/ (About this sound listen)),[10][11] officially the Commonwealth of Australia,[12] is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney.

For about 50,000 years[13] before the first British settlement in the late 18th century,[14][15] Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians,[16] who in documented times have spoken languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups.[17][18] After the European discovery of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories.

Australia has the world's 13th-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income (IMF).[19] With the second-highest human development index globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and civil liberties and political rights.[20] Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum. The population of 25 million[5] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[21] Australia has the world's 9th largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population.[22][23]

  1. ^ It's an Honour – Symbols – Australian National Anthem Archived 9 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. and DFAT – "Australian National Anthem" Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.; "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (PDF) (29th ed.). 2005 [2002]. Archived from the original on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007. 
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference language was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
  4. ^ Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2. 
  5. ^ a b "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 1 July 2017.  The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  6. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 June 2017.  Edit this at Wikidata
  7. ^ a b c d "Australia". International Monetary Fund. October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  8. ^ "OECD Economic Surveys: Norway 2012". 
  9. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  10. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 56. ISBN 1-876429-37-2. 
  11. ^ "Australia". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. April 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  12. ^ "Constitution of Australia". ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia. 
  13. ^ Wade, Nicholas (22 September 2011). "Australian Aborigine Hair Tells a Story of Human Migration". The New York Times. 
  14. ^ "European discovery and the colonisation of Australia". Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2010. [The British] moved north to Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, landing at Camp Cove, known as 'cadi' to the Cadigal people. Governor Phillip carried instructions to establish the first British Colony in Australia. The First Fleet was under prepared for the task, and the soil around Sydney Cove was poor. 
  15. ^ Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 157, 254.
  16. ^ "Both Australian Aborigines and Europeans Rooted in Africa – 50,000 years ago". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  17. ^ "Australian Social Trends". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 6 June 2008. 
  18. ^ Walsh, Michael (1991) "Overview of indigenous languages of Australia" in Suzanne Romaine (1991). Language in Australia. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-521-33983-4. 
  19. ^ Data refer mostly to the year 2014. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2015, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 25 April 2015.
  20. ^ "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008. 
  21. ^ "Geographic Distribution of the Population". Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  22. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features — Cultural Diversity Article". www.abs.gov.au. 
  23. ^ United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015). 'International Migration' in International migrant stock 2015. Accessed from International migrant stock 2015: maps on 24 May 2017.


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