Melbourne

Melbourne
Victoria
Melbourne city montage.jpg
Map of Melbourne, Australia, printable and editable
Map of Melbourne, Australia, printable and editable
Melbourne is located in Australia
Melbourne
Melbourne
Coordinates 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306Coordinates: 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306
Population 4,725,316 (2016)[1] (2nd)
 • Density 472.8863/km2 (1,224.770/sq mi)
Established 30 August 1835
Elevation 31 m (102 ft)
Area 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi)(GCCSA)[2]
Time zone AEST (UTC+10)
 • Summer (DST) AEDT (UTC+11)
Location
LGA(s) 31 Municipalities across Greater Melbourne
County Grant, Bourke, Mornington
State electorate(s) 54 electoral districts and regions
Federal Division(s) 23 Divisions
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
20.4 °C
69 °F
11.4 °C
53 °F
602.6 mm
23.7 in

Melbourne (/ˈmɛlbərn/[8] locally [ˈmɛɫbn̩] (About this sound listen))[9][10] is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.[1] The name "Melbourne" covers an urban agglomeration spanning 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi),[2] which comprises the broader metropolitan area, as well as being the common name for its city centre. The metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities.[11] It has a population of 4,725,316 as of 2016,[1] and its inhabitants are called Melburnians.[12][13]

Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemen's Land on 30 August 1835, in what was then the colony of New South Wales,[14] it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837.[14] It was named "Melbourne" by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne.[14] It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847,[15] after which it became the capital of the newly founded colony of Victoria in 1851.[15] During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities.[16] After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the nation's interim seat of government until 1927.[17] Additionally, it was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games.

Melbourne rates highly in education, entertainment, health care, research and development, tourism and sport,[18] making it the world's most liveable city—for the seventh year in a row in 2017, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.[19] It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region, and ranks among the top 15 cities in the world in the Global Financial Centres Index.[20] Referred to as Australia's "cultural capital",[21] it is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries, and Australian contemporary dance. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a major centre for street art, music and theatre. It is home to many of Australia's largest and oldest cultural institutions such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria, the State Library of Victoria and the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building.

The main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport (also called Tullamarine Airport), the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo.[22] Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the main regional train and coach terminus is Southern Cross Station. Melbourne is also home to Australia's most extensive freeway network and has the world's largest urban tram network.[23]

  1. ^ a b c "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2015–16". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.  ERP at 30 June 2016.
  2. ^ a b "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2015–16: Population Estimates by Statistical Area Level 2 (ASGS 2016), 2006 to 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  Estimated resident population, 30 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Great Circle Distance between MELBOURNE and CANBERRA". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. 
  4. ^ "Great Circle Distance between MELBOURNE and ADELAIDE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. 
  5. ^ "Great Circle Distance between MELBOURNE and SYDNEY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. 
  6. ^ "Great Circle Distance between MELBOURNE and BRISBANE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. 
  7. ^ "Great Circle Distance between MELBOURNE and PERTH". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. 
  8. ^ "Melbourne." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged based on the Random House Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2017.
  9. ^ Butler, S., ed. (2013). "Melbourne". Macquarie Dictionary (6th ed.). Sydney: Macmillan Publishers Group Australia 2015. 1952 pages. ISBN 978-18-7642-966-9. 
  10. ^ "Melbourne". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  11. ^ "Victorian Local Government Directory" (PDF). Department of Planning and Community Development, Government of Victoria. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009. 
  12. ^ The use of the term Melburnian can be traced back to 1876 where the case for Melburnian over Melbournian was made in the Melbourne Grammar School publication, the Melburnian. "The diphthong, 'ou' is not a Latin diphthong: hence, we argued this way,Melburnia would be [the] Latin form of name, and from it comes Melburnian." See Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, iii, s.v. "Melburnian".
  13. ^ Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005) Or less commonly Melbournites. Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3
  14. ^ a b c "History of the City of Melbourne" (PDF). City of Melbourne. November 1997. pp. 8–10. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  15. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MilesLewis25 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference RobertCervero320 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act" (PDF). Department of the Attorney-General, Government of Australia. p. 45 (Section 125). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2009. 
  18. ^ Langmaid, Aaron (28 April 2010). We're sport's champion city again. Herald Sun. News Limited. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  19. ^ Stephanie Chalkley-Rhoden (16 August 2017). "World's most liveable city: Melbourne takes top spot for seventh year running". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  20. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 22" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2017. 
  21. ^ Westwood, Matthew (26 November 2013). The Cultural Capital's Perfect 10. The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  22. ^ "Government outlines vision for Port of Melbourne Freight Hub" (Press release). 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2007. 
  23. ^ "Investing in Transport Chapter 3 – East/West, Section 3.1.2 – Tram Network" (PDF). Department of Transport, Government of Victoria. Retrieved 21 November 2009. 

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