Advertising

A Coca-Cola advertisement from the 1890s

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.[1]:465 Sponsors of advertising are often businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual.[1]:661,672 Advertising is communicated through various mass media,[2] including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail; and new media such as search results, blogs, social media, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or "ad" for short.

Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising. Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. Advertising may also be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.

Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising.[3][4]

Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion.[5] Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio.[6] Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising-agency groups are Interpublic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP.[7]

In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards".[8]

  1. ^ a b William J. Stanton. Fundamentals of Marketing. McGraw-Hill (1984).
  2. ^ Courtland L. Bovee, William F. Arens. Contemporary Advertising, Fourth Edition. Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1992.
  3. ^ Donley T. Studlar (2002) Tobacco Control: Comparative Politics in the United States and Canada Archived May 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. p.55 quotation: "... froms. the early days advertising has been intimately intertwined with tobacco. The man who is sometimes considered the founder of modern advertising and Madison Avenue, Edward Bernays, created many of the major cigarette campaigns of the 1920s, including having women march down the street demanding the right to smoke."
  4. ^ Donald G. Gifford (2010) Suing the Tobacco and Lead Pigment Industries Archived May 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., p.15 quotation: "... during the early twentieth century, tobacco manufacturers virtually created the modern advertising and marketing industry as it is known today."
  5. ^ "CARAT PREDICTS POSITIVE OUTLOOK IN 2016 WITH GLOBAL GROWTH OF +4.7%". Carat. September 22, 2015. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Plummeting Newspaper Ad Revenue Sparks New Wave of Changes". Wall Street Journal. October 20, 2016. Archived from the original on March 11, 2017. 
  7. ^ Parekh, Rupal (July 12, 2012). "Not the 'Big Four' Holding Firms in Adland Anymore – Now It's the Big Five | Agency News – Advertising Age". Adage.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Latin Word Study Tool". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-31. 

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