California

State of California
Flag of California State seal of California
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Golden State
Motto(s): Eureka[1]
State song(s): "I Love You, California"
Map of the United States with California highlighted
Official language English
Spoken languages

Native languages as of 2007

Demonym Californian
Capital Sacramento
Largest city Los Angeles
Largest metro Greater Los Angeles Area
Area Ranked 3rd
 • Total 163,696 sq mi
(423,970 km2)
 • Width 250 miles (400 km)
 • Length 770 miles (1,240 km)
 • % water 4.7
 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N
 • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124°26′ W
Population Ranked 1st
 • Total 39,536,653 (2017 est.)[4]
 • Density 240/sq mi  (92.6/km2)
Ranked 11th
 • Median household income $63,636[5] (13th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Whitney[6][7][8][9]
14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)
 • Mean 2,900 ft  (880 m)
 • Lowest point Badwater Basin[10]
−279 ft (−85.0 m)
Before statehood California Republic
Admission to Union September 9, 1850 (31st)
Governor Jerry Brown (D)
Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom (D)
Legislature California State Legislature
 • Upper house California State Senate
 • Lower house California State Assembly
U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
U.S. House delegation 39 Democrats
14 Republicans (list)
Time zones Pacific Time Zone
 • Standard time PST (UTC−8)
 • Summer time (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ISO 3166 US-CA
Abbreviations CA, Calif., Cal.
Website www.ca.gov
California state symbols
Flag of California.svg
Seal of California.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian California red-legged frog
Bird California quail
Fish
Flower California poppy
Grass Purple needlegrass
Insect California dogface butterfly
Mammal
Reptile Desert tortoise
Tree California redwood
Inanimate insignia
Colors Blue & gold [11]
Dance West Coast Swing
Folk dance Square dance
Fossil Sabre-toothed cat
Gemstone Benitoite
Mineral Native gold
Motto Eureka[1]
Nickname The Golden State
Rock Serpentine
Soil San Joaquin
Song "I Love You, California"
Tartan California State Tartan
State route marker
California state route marker
State quarter
California quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States of America. With 39.5 million residents, California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively.[12] Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County; its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; and its fifth most densely populated county, San Francisco.

California's $2.717 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state.[13] If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world,[14] and the 36th most populous.[15] The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area.[16] The San Francisco Bay Area combined statistical area has the nation's highest GDP per capita,[16] and is home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization[17] and four of the world's ten richest people.[18]

California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation, and politics. It is the origin of the film industry, the hippie counterculture, the Internet,[19] and the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a very diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services.[20] Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy,[20] California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.[21]

California is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwoodDouglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Though California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains.

What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California then was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

  1. ^ a b c "Government Code Section 420-429.8". State of California Legislative Council. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  2. ^ Hyon B. Shin; Robert A. Kominski (April 2010). "Language Use in the United States: 2007" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Appendix Table A for Figures 5A-5H. Percentage Speaking a Language Other Than English at Home by English-Speaking Ability by State: 2007". Language Use in the United States: 2007 (ACS-12): Appendix Tables. United States Census Bureau. 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2013. 
  4. ^ "California: Population estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mount_Whitney was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference USGS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference NAVD88 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ The summit of Mount Whitney is the highest point in the Contiguous United States.
  10. ^ "USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 meter Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) – National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)". United States Geological Survey. September 21, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Government Code Section 424". State of California Legislative Council. Retrieved July 25, 2014. 
  12. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  13. ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  15. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  16. ^ a b Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  17. ^ PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Global top 100 companies 2017". PwC. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  19. ^ "Happy 25th anniversary, World Wide Web". CalWatchdog.com. 
  20. ^ a b "California Gross domestic product (GDP) (millions of current dollars)". U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Fruits and Vegetables, America Eats, from Life in the USA: The Complete Guide for Immigrants and Americans". Life in the USA. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 

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