Hate speech

Hate speech is speech which attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, disability, or gender.[1][2] In the law of some countries, hate speech is described as speech, gesture or conduct, writing, or display which is forbidden because it incites violence or prejudicial action against a protected group, or individual on the basis of their membership of the group, or because it disparages or intimidates a protected group, or individual on the basis of their membership of the group. The law may identify a protected group by certain characteristics.[3][4][5] In some countries, hate speech is not a legal term[6] and in some it is constitutionally protected.[7]

In some countries, a victim of hate speech may seek redress under civil law, criminal law, or both. A website which uses hate speech may be called a hate site. Many of these sites contain Internet forums and news briefs that emphasize a particular viewpoint.

There has been debate over freedom of speech, hate speech and hate speech legislation.[8] Critics have argued that the term "hate speech" is used to silence critics.[9]

  1. ^ Definitions for "hate speech", Dictionary.com. Retrieved 25 June 2011
  2. ^ Nockleby, John T. (2000), “Hate Speech” in Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, ed. Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst, vol. 3. (2nd ed.), Detroit: Macmillan Reference US, pp. 1277–79. Cited in "Library 2.0 and the Problem of Hate Speech," by Margaret Brown-Sica and Jeffrey Beall, Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, vol. 9 no. 2 (Summer 2008).
  3. ^ "Criminal Justice Act 2003". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  4. ^ An Activist's Guide to The Yogyakarta Principles (PDF) (Report). November 14, 2010. p. 125. 
  5. ^ Kinney, Terry A. (2008). "Hate Speech and Ethnophaulisms". The International Encyclopedia of Communication. Blackwell Reference Online. doi:10.1111/b.9781405131995.2008.x. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 
  6. ^ "CNN's Chris Cuomo: First Amendment doesn't cover hate speech". 
  7. ^ Volokh, Eugene (5 May 2015). "No, there's no "hate speech" exception to the First Amendment". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  8. ^ Herz, Michael and Peter Molnar, eds. 2012. The content and context of hate speech. Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ "George Orwell meets the OIC". Human Events. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 

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