Social media

A Facebook page on a mobile phone

Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition; however, there are some common features:[1]

  1. Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.[1][2]
  2. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media.[1][2]
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.[1][3]
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.[1][3]

Users typically access social media services via web-based technologies on desktop, computers, and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablet computers). When engaging with these services, users can create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses, organizations, communities and individuals.[4] Social media changes the way individuals and large organizations communicate. These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media (e.g., magazines and newspapers) or traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality,[5] reach, frequency, interactivity, usability, immediacy, and permanence. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system (many sources to many receivers).[6] This is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model (one source to many receivers), such as a paper newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites are Baidu Tieba, Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), Gab, Google+, MySpace, Instagram, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Tumblr, Twitter, Viber, VK, WeChat, Weibo, WhatsApp, Wikia, Snapchat and YouTube. These social media websites have more than 100,000,000 registered users.

In America, a survey reported that 84 percent of adolescents in America have a Facebook account.[7] Over 60% of 13 to 17-year-olds have at least one profile on social media, with many spending more than two hours a day on social networking sites.[8] According to Nielsen, Internet users continue to spend more time on social media sites than on any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media sites in the U.S. across PCs as well as on mobile devices increased by 99 percent to 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 66 billion minutes in July 2011.[9] For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building a reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income.[10]

Observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve individuals' sense of connectedness with real or online communities, and social media can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, nonprofit organizations, including advocacy groups and political parties and governments. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between heavy social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment and "trolling". Currently, about half of young adults have been cyberbullied and of those, 20 percent said that they have been cyberbullied regularly.[11] Another survey was carried out among 7th grade students in America, which is known as the Precaution Process Adoption Model. According to this study, 69 percent of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying and they also said that it is worse than face to face bullying.[12] However both the bully and the victim are negatively affected, the intensity, duration and frequency are the three aspects that increase the negative effects on both of them[13]

  1. ^ a b c d e Obar, Jonathan A.; Wildman, Steve (2015). "Social media definition and the governance challenge: An introduction to the special issue". Telecommunications policy. 39 (9): 745–750. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.014. SSRN 2647377Freely accessible. 
  2. ^ a b Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael (2010). "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media" (PDF). Business Horizons. 53 (1): 61. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003. 
  3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference boydEllison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Kietzmann, Jan H.; Kristopher Hermkens (2011). "Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media". Business Horizons. 54 (3): 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005. 
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference qualitymedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Pavlik & MacIntoch, John and Shawn (2015). Converging Media 4th Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-19-934230-3. 
  7. ^ O'Keefe, Gwenn Schuirgin (2011). "The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents and Families" (PDF). Pediatrics. 127 (4): 801–805. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054Freely accessible. PMID 21444588. 
  8. ^ Hajirnis, Aditi (2015-12-01). "Social media networking: Parent guidance required". The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 31 (12): 1–7. doi:10.1002/cbl.30086. 
  9. ^ "State of the media: The social media report 2012". Featured Insights, Global, Media + Entertainment. Nielsen. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  10. ^ Tang, Qian; Gu, Bin; Whinston, Andrew B. (2012). "Content Contribution for Revenue Sharing and Reputation in Social Media: A Dynamic Structural Model". Journal of Management Information Systems. 29 (2): 41–75. doi:10.2753/mis0742-1222290203. 
  11. ^ "Cyberbullying Statistics". NObullying.com. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 
  12. ^ Chapin, John (2016). "Adolescents and Cyber Bullying: The Precaution Adoption Process Model". Education and Information Technologies. 21 (4): 719–728. doi:10.1007/s10639-014-9349-1. 
  13. ^ Peebles, E (2014). "Cyberbullying: Hiding behind the screen". Pediatrics Child Health. 

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