Stanford University

Stanford University
Leland Stanford Junior University
Stanford University seal 2003.svg
Motto German: Die Luft der Freiheit weht[1]
Motto in English
The wind of freedom blows[1]
Type Private research university
Established 1891 (1891)[2][3]
Founder Leland and Jane Stanford
Endowment US$22,398,000,000 (2016)[4]
President Marc Tessier-Lavigne
Provost Persis Drell
Academic staff
2,153[5]
Administrative staff
12,148[6] excluding SHC
Students 16,336
Undergraduates 7,032[7]
Postgraduates 9,304[7]
Location Stanford, California, U.S.
Coordinates: 37°25′42″N 122°10′08″W / 37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W / 37.4282293; -122.1688576[8]
Campus Suburban, 8,180 acres (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2)[7]
Academic term Quarter
Colors Cardinal and white[9]
         
Nickname Cardinal
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division I FBS
Mascot None[10]
Website www.stanford.edu
Stanford wordmark (2012).svg
Stanford is located in the US
Stanford
Stanford
Location in the United States
Stanford is located in California
Stanford
Stanford
Location in California

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University,[11] colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California, in Silicon Valley, 20 miles (30 km) outside of San Jose. Due to its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley, Stanford is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891,[2][3] as a coeducational and non-denominational institution.

Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanford's death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[20] Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.[21] The university is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.[22]

The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine, Education and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is one of the top three most selective in the United States.[23][24][25][26][27] Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 115 NCAA team championships,[28] the most for a university (one more than UCLA), 483 individual championships,[29] and has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 23 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995.[30] In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.[31]

Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a large number of companies, these companies produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue.[32] It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires, 17 astronauts, and 20 Turing Award laureates.[note 1] It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress.[53][54] 67 Nobel laureates and 7 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty or staff.[55]

  1. ^ a b Casper, Gerhard (October 5, 1995). Die Luft der Freiheit weht—On and Off (Speech). Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "History: Stanford University". Stanford University. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Chapter 1: The University and the Faculty". Faculty Handbook. Stanford University. September 7, 2016. Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  4. ^ As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. February 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference stanford_facts_faculty was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "Stanford Facts: Administration & Finances". Stanford University. February 27, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Communications, Stanford Office of University. "Introduction: Stanford University Facts". Stanford Facts at a Glance. Retrieved August 1, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Stanford University". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. January 19, 1981. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Color". Stanford Identity Toolkit. Stanford University. Retrieved May 7, 2017. 
  10. ^ (The Stanford Tree is the mascot of the Band but not the university)
  11. ^ ""Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax – 2013" (IRS Form 990)" (PDF). 990s.foundationcenter.org. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  12. ^ Palfreyman, D., & Tapper, T. (2009). Structuring mass higher education: The role of elite institutions. Routledge. Chicago
  13. ^ "World Reputation Rankings". Timeshighereducation.com. April 21, 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  14. ^ "Six 'superbrands': their reputations precede them". Timeshighereducation.com. March 10, 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  15. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (May 29, 2014). "Riding Technology Wave, Stanford Rises to Top of Some Measures". Nytimes.com. 
  16. ^ Oremus, Will (April 15, 2013). "Silicon Is the New Ivy". Slate.com. 
  17. ^ Auletta, Ken (April 23, 2012). "Get Rich U". Newyorker.com. 
  18. ^ "The World's Most Innovative Universities". Reuters. September 15, 2015. 
  19. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2016 - Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016 - Top 500 universities - Shanghai Ranking - 2016". www.shanghairanking.com. 
  20. ^ "History – Part 2 (The New Century) : Stanford University". Stanford.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  21. ^ "History – Part 3 (The Rise of Silicon Valley) : Stanford University". Stanford.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Record Fundraising was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ "Top 100 – Lowest Acceptance Rates". Archived from the original on 2017-02-23. 
  24. ^ "The most competitive university in America isn't in the Ivy League". 
  25. ^ "To Young Minds of Today, Harvard Is the Stanford of the East". 
  26. ^ "Stanford offers admission to 2,050 students from around the world". 
  27. ^ "Stanford admit rate falls to 4.65 percent". 
  28. ^ "National Championships (134 overall, 111 NCAA)". Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  29. ^ "Championship Summary through July 1, 2016" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  30. ^ "Stanford wins 23rd-consecutive Directors' Cup; five Pac-12 members finish among top 15". Pac-12 News. June 29, 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2018. 
  31. ^ "Wrapping Up Rio". Stanford University. Retrieved 2017-11-11. 
  32. ^ Beckett, Jamie (24 October 2012). "Study shows Stanford alumni create nearly $3 trillion in economic impact each year". Stanford Report. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  33. ^ "Vinton Cerf – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  34. ^ "Allen Newell". acm.org. 
  35. ^ "Martin Hellman". acm.org. 
  36. ^ "John E Hopcroft". acm.org. 
  37. ^ "Barbara Liskov". acm.org. 
  38. ^ "Raj Reddy – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  39. ^ "Ronald L Rivest – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  40. ^ "Robert E Tarjan – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  41. ^ "Whitfield Diffie". acm.org. 
  42. ^ "Douglas Engelbart". acm.org. 
  43. ^ "Edward A Feigenbaum – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  44. ^ "Robert W. Floyd – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  45. ^ Lee, J.A.N. "Charles Antony Richard (Tony) Hoare". IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  46. ^ "Alan Kay". acm.org. 
  47. ^ "John McCarthy". acm.org. 
  48. ^ "A J Milner – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  49. ^ "Amir Pnueli". acm.org. 
  50. ^ "Dana S Scott – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  51. ^ "Niklaus E. Wirth". acm.org. 
  52. ^ "Andrew C Yao – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org. 
  53. ^ Farrell, Andrew. "Billionaire Universities". Forbes. 
  54. ^ "Harvard, Stanford, Yale Graduate Most Members of Congress". 
  55. ^ Carey, Bjorn (12 August 2014). "Stanford's Maryam Mirzakhani wins Fields Medal". Stanford Report. Stanford University. Retrieved 17 September 2015. 


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