Android (operating system)

Android
Android robot 2014.svg
Android logo (2014).svg
Developer
Written in Java (UI), C (core), C++ and more[1]
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Open source (most devices include proprietary components, such as Google Play)
Initial release September 23, 2008; 9 years ago (2008-09-23)[2]
Latest release 8.1.0 "Oreo" / December 5, 2017; 2 months ago (2017-12-05)
Marketing target Smartphones, tablet computers, Android TV, Android Auto and Android Wear
Available in 100+ languages[3]
Package manager APK (primarily through Google Play; installation of APKs also possible locally or from alternative sources such as F-Droid)
Platforms 32- and 64-bit ARM, x86, x86-64, MIPS and MIPS64
Kernel type Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)
Userland Bionic libc,[4] mksh shell,[5] Toybox as core utilities beginning with Android 6.0,[6][7] previously native core utilities with a few from NetBSD[8][9]
Default user interface Graphical (multi-touch)
License Apache License 2.0
GNU GPL v2 for the Linux kernel modifications[10]
Official website android.com

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics.

Initially developed by Android Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 8.1 "Oreo", released in December 2017.

Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013. As of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, and as of 2017, the Google Play store features over 3.5 million apps.[11]

  1. ^ "Android Language Breakdown". Open Hub. October 25, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2017. 
  2. ^ Morrill, Dan (September 23, 2008). "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1". Android Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved March 11, 2017. 
  3. ^ "Android 7.0 Nougat". Retrieved September 5, 2016. Internationalization
    Multi-locale support [..]
    New languages supported: Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from 100 new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic. This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it.
     
  4. ^ "android/platform/bionic/". 
  5. ^ "android/platform/external/mksh/". Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. 
  6. ^ "android/platform/external/toybox/toys/". 
  7. ^ "Android gets a toybox". 
  8. ^ "android/platform/system/core/toolbox/". Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ "dd command from NetBSD as an example". Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Licenses". Android Source. Google. Retrieved March 11, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Number of Google Play Store apps 2017 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 

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