United States

Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

United States of America
Motto: 
Projection of North America with the United States in green
The United States and its territories
The United States including its territories
Capital Washington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest city New York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languages None at federal level[fn 2]
National language English[fn 3]
Ethnic groups (2016[6]) By race:
77.1% White
13.3% Black
5.6% Asian
2.6% Other/multiracial
1.2% Native
0.2% Pacific Islander
Ethnicity:
17.6% Hispanic or Latino
82.4% non-Hispanic or Latino
Religion (2016[7]) 73.7% Christian
18.2% Unaffiliated
2.1% Jewish
0.8% Muslim
2.5% Other faiths
2.6% Unanswered
Demonym American
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
Donald Trump
Mike Pence
Paul Ryan
John Roberts
Legislature Congress
Senate
House of Representatives
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
March 24, 1976
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[8] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
6.97
• Total land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2)
Population
• 2017 estimate
325,719,178[9] (3rd)
• 2010 census
308,745,538[10] (3rd)
• Density
90.6/sq mi (35.0/km2) (180th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$20.199 trillion[11] (2nd)
• Per capita
$61,687[11] (11th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$20.199 trillion[11] (1st)
• Per capita
$61,687[11] (7th)
Gini (2013) Negative increase 41.1[12]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.920[13]
very high · 10th
Currency United States dollar ($) (USD)
Time zone (UTC−4 to −12, +10, +11)
• Summer (DST)
 (UTC−4 to −10[fn 4])
Date format mm/dd/yyyy
Drives on the right[fn 5]
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code US
Internet TLD .us

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[fn 6] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2) and with over 325 million people, the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[fn 7] and the third-most populous. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.[19]

Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago.[20] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power.[21] The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories,[22] displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.[22] During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.[23][24] By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean,[25] and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar.[26] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 moon landing. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[27]

The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[28] The U.S. economy is the fastest-growing in the Americas[29][30] and is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world.[31] Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total,[32] the U.S. holds 33.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[33] The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage,[34] human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person.[35] The U.S. is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending,[36] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[37]

  1. ^ George McKenna 2007, p. 280.
  2. ^ Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91.
  3. ^ "uscode.house.gov". Public Law 105-225-Aug. 12, 1998. uscode.house.gov. August 12, 1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017. Section 304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled "The Stars and Stripes Forever" is the national march." 
  4. ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
  5. ^ García 2011, p. 167.
  6. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: UNITED STATES". QuickFacts. U.S. Department of Commerce. July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2017. 
  7. ^ Inc., Gallup,. "Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S." 
  8. ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor (other) island territories per State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, US Census Bureau, August 2010, retrieved November 17, 2017, reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Population estimates, July 1, 2017, (V2017)". US Census Bureau. 
  10. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2017.  The 2016 estimate is as of July 1, 2016. The 2010 census is as of April 1, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund (IMF). Retrieved October 1, 2017. 
  12. ^ "OECD Income Distribution Database: Gini, poverty, income, Methods and Concepts". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved September 29, 2017. 
  13. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2017. 
  14. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80.— and U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, p. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  15. ^ "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  16. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  17. ^ "United States". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016. 
  18. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016. 
  19. ^ UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Megadiverse Countries definition | Biodiversity A-Z". Biodiversity A-Z. UN WCMC. Retrieved September 11, 2017. "17 countries which have been identified as the most biodiversity-rich countries of the world, with a particular focus on endemic biodiversity". 
  20. ^ Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19.
  21. ^ Greene, Jack P.; Pole, J.R., eds. (2008). A Companion to the American Revolution. pp. 352–361.
    Bender, Thomas (2006). A Nation Among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8090-7235-4. 
    "Overview of the Early National Period". Digital History. University of Houston. 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2015. 
  22. ^ a b Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0. 
  23. ^ "The Civil War and emancipation 1861–1865". Africans in America. Boston, Massachusetts: WGBH Educational Foundation. 1999. Archived from the original on October 12, 1999. 
  24. ^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H., ed. The American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics, and Power. America at War. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-61530-045-7. 
  25. ^ White, Donald W. (1996). "1: The Frontiers". The American Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05721-0. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Work in the Late 19th Century". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  27. ^ Tony Judt; Denis Lacorne (June 4, 2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4. 
    Richard J. Samuels (December 21, 2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. SAGE Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3. 
    Paul R. Pillar (January 1, 2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8157-0004-0. 
    Gabe T. Wang (January 1, 2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2. 
    Understanding the "Victory Disease," From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. DIANE Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2. 
    Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5. 
  28. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015". 
  29. ^ International Monetary Fund (October 2016). "List of South American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  30. ^ International Monetary Fund (October 2016). "List of North American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017. 
  31. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". World Bank Open Data. World Bank. Retrieved February 11, 2017. 
  32. ^ Cite error: The named reference urlPopulation Clock was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  33. ^ "Credit Suisse Publikationen". publications.credit-suisse.com. 
  34. ^ "Average annual wages, 2013 USD PPPs and 2013 constant prices". OECD. Retrieved April 30, 2016. 
  35. ^ "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Trends in world military expenditure, 2013". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 2014. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  37. ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
    BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
    "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
    "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
    "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 


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