Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" (Hindi)[2]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[3][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Largest city Mumbai
18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.97500°N 72.82583°E / 18.97500; 72.82583
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National language None[8][9][10]
Demonym Indian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional socialist[12]
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra Modi
Dipak Misra
Sumitra Mahajan
Legislature Parliament of India
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom
15 August 1947
26 January 1950
• Total
3,287,263[5] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[d] (7th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
1,324,171,354[13] (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[14][15] (2nd)
• Density
395.7/km2 (1,024.9/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$10.339 trillion[16] (3rd)
• Per capita
$7,749[16] (116th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$2.654 trillion[16] (5th)
• Per capita
$1,989[16] (133rd)
Gini (2013) 33.9[17]
medium · 79th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.624[18]
medium · 131st
Currency Indian rupee () (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
DST is not observed
Date format DD-MM-YYYY
Drives on the left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD .in

India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE — one of the world's earliest civilizations.[19][g] In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Large scale urbanization occurred on the Ganges in the first millennium BCE leading to the Mahajanapadas, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The country was unified in the 17th century by the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century, the subcontinent came under the Maratha Empire and in the 19th under the British East India Company, later shifting to British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947.

In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.[16] Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is widely recognized for its wide cinema, rich cuisine and lush wildlife and vegetation. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

  1. ^ a b c d National Informatics Centre 2005.
  2. ^ a b c "National Symbols | National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017. The National Anthem of India Jana Gana Mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. 
  3. ^ Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
  4. ^ Ministry of Home Affairs 1960.
  5. ^ a b "Profile | National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  6. ^ "Constitutional Provisions – Official Language Related Part-17 Of The Constitution Of India". National Informatics Centre (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Times News Network was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference NoneNtl was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Press Trust of India was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census2011religion was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ "Preamble of the Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law & Justice. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)". Census of India. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  15. ^ "A – 2 DECADAL VARIATION IN POPULATION SINCE 1901" (PDF). Census of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund (IMF). Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  17. ^ "Income Gini coefficient". United Nations Development Program. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "Human Development Report 2016 Summary" (PDF). The United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Wright 2010.

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