Maldives

Republic of Maldives
ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ (Dhivehi)
Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya
Anthem: Qaumii salaam
National Salute
Location of Maldives in the Indian Ocean
Location of Maldives in the Indian Ocean
Location of Maldives
Capital
and largest city
Malé
Official languages Maldivian (Dhivehi)
Ethnic groups (2011) ≈100% Maldiviansa[1][2][3]
Religion 100% Islam
Demonym Maldivian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Abdulla Yameen
Abdulla Jihad[4]
• Speaker
Abdulla Maseeh Mohamed[5]
Abdullah Saeed[6]
Legislature People's Majlis
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
26 July 1965
7 August 2008
Area
• Total
298[7] km2 (115 sq mi) (187th)
• Water (%)
0
Population
• 2016 estimate
427,756[8] (175th)
• 2014 census
341,356[9]
• Density
1,102.5/km2 (2,855.5/sq mi) (11th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$5.853 billion[10] (162nd)
• Per capita
$16,275[10] (69th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$3.578 billion[10]
• Per capita
$9,948[10]
Gini (2005–2013) 37.4[11]
medium
HDI (2014) Increase 0.706[12]
high · 103rd
Currency Maldivian rufiyaa (MVR)
Time zone Maldives Time (UTC+5)
Date format dd/mm/yy
Drives on the Right
Calling code +960
ISO 3166 code MV
Internet TLD .mv
  1. Excluding foreign nationals.

The Maldives (/ˈmɒldvz/, /ˈmɔːldvz/, /ˈmɔːldvz/ (About this sound listen) or /ˈmældvz/),[13] officially the Republic of Maldives (Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya), is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India. The chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by both land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location.

The Maldives archipelago is located atop the Chagos-Maldives-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which also forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos and the Lakshadweep.[14] With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level,[15] it is the world's lowest country, with even its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in).[15] Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea-levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019.[16][needs update]

The Maldivian archipelago took to Islam in the 12th century and consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid 16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis. The ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform,[17] and environmental challenges posed by climate change.[citation needed]

The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). It is also a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy.[18] Fishing has historically been the dominant economic activity, and remains the largest sector by far, followed by the rapidly growing tourism industry. Along with Sri Lanka, it is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index,[12] with its per capita income one of the highest among SAARC nations.[19]

The Maldives was a Commonwealth republic from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights.

  1. ^ Levinson, David (1947). Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook. Oryx Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1. 
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Maloney, Clarence was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference r1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ "The President's Office – His Excellency Abdulla Jihad sworn in as Vice President". www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  5. ^ "Eighteenth People's Majlis elects Speaker and Deputy Speaker". People's Majlis. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Supreme Court of the Maldives". supremecourt.gov.mv. 
  7. ^ "FIELD LISTING :: AREA". CIA World Factbook. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  9. ^ "GeoHive – Maldives Population". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Maldives". International Monetary Fund. 
  11. ^ "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 17. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 13. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  13. ^ "Maldives". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  14. ^ World Wildlife Fund (2001). "Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 
  15. ^ a b Henley, Jon (11 November 2008). "The last days of paradise". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010. [The Maldives] holds the record for the country with the lowest high point on earth: nowhere on the Maldives does the natural ground level exceed 2.3m. Most of [the Maldives'] land mass, which totals roughly one-fifth of Greater London, is a great deal lower [...], averaging around 1.5m. 
  16. ^ "Copenhagen Accord" (PDF). New York Times. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  17. ^ "Maldives – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2015". 
  18. ^ Upper middle income World Bank. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  19. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2016_statistical_annex.pdf

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