Sri Lankan Civil War

Sri Lankan Civil War
ශ්‍රී ලාංකික සිවිල් යුද්ධය
இலங்கை உள்நாட்டுப் போர்
Location Tamil Eelam territorial claim.png
The area of Sri Lanka claimed by the LTTE as Tamil Eelam, where the vast majority of the fighting took place
Date 23 July 1983 – 18 May 2009[1]
(25 years, 9 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)
Location Sri Lanka
Result
Territorial
changes
Government regains total control of former LTTE-controlled areas in the North and East of the country.
Belligerents

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka


India Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–1990)
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Commanders and leaders

Sri Lanka J. R. Jayawardene (1983–1989)
Sri Lanka Ranasinghe Premadasa  (1989–1993)
Sri Lanka D. B. Wijetunga (1993–1994)
Sri Lanka Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994–2005)
Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005–2009)


India R. Venkataraman (1987–1989)
India Rajiv Gandhi (1987–1989) 
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg V. Prabhakaran  (1983–2009)
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Balraj
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Karuna Amman (1983–2004)
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg KP
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Mahattaya  Executed
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Pottu Amman
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Shankar 
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Soosai 
Strength

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Armed Forces:
95,000 (2001)
118,000 (2002)
158,000 (2003)
151,000 (2004)
111,000 (2005)
150,900 (2006)[2]
210,000 (2008)[2]


India Indian Peace Keeping Force:
100,000 (peak)
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(excluding Auxiliary forces):
6,000 (2001)
7,000 (2003
18,000 (2004)[2][3])
11,000 (2005)
8,000 (2006)
7,000 (2007)[2][4]
(including Auxiliary forces):
25,000 (2006)
30,000 (2008)[5]
Casualties and losses

Sri Lanka 23,327+ killed
60,000+ wounded (Sri Lankan military and police)[6][7][8]


India 1,200 killed
(Indian Peace Keeping Force)[9]
LiberationTigersofTamilEelamFlag.jpg 27,000+ killed[10][11][12][13]
11,644 captured[14]
100,000+ killed overall (estimate)[15]
800,000 displaced at peak in 2001[16]
16 May 2009: Sri Lankan Government declared a military defeat of LTTE.[17]
17 May 2009: LTTE admit defeat by Sri Lankan Government.[18]
19 May 2009: President Mahinda Rajapaksa officially declares end of civil war in parliament.

The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end.[1]

For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an initial estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course.[15] In 2013, the UN panel estimated additional deaths during the last phase of the war: "Around 40,000 died while other independent reports estimated the number of civilians dead to exceed 100,000."[19] During the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the actions of Government forces resulted in their listing as a terrorist organisation in 32 countries, including the United States, India, Canada and the member nations of the European Union.[20] The Sri Lankan government forces have also been accused of human rights abuses, systematic impunity for serious human rights violations, lack of respect for habeas corpus in arbitrary detentions, and forced disappearances.[21]

After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002.[22] However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[23][24]

In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on 2 January 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times.[25] Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE,[26] and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and the entire A9 highway,[27] leading the LTTE to finally admit defeat on 17 May 2009.[28] Following the LTTE's defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30] In May 2010, Mahinda Rajapaksa, the then president of Sri Lanka, appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE in 2009.[31]

  1. ^ a b "LTTE defeated; Sri Lanka liberated from terror". Ministry of Defence. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d International Institute for Strategic Studies, Armed Conflicts Database. Archived 11 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "iiss1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ [1].
  4. ^ Opposition leader rebutts [sic] Sri Lankan government claims Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine..
  5. ^ "Humanitarian Operation – Factual Analysis, July 2006 – May 2009" (PDF). Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka). 1 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. 
  6. ^ "Psychological Management of Combat Stress—A Study Based on Sri Lankan Combatants" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2008. 
  7. ^ "Sri Lanka Assessment 2007". Satp.org. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  8. ^ "Sri Lankan army deaths revealed". BBC News. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  9. ^ Nakkawita, Wijitha (3 June 2009). "LTTE killing spree". Daily News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  10. ^ "Sri Lanka Database – Casualties of Terrorist violence in Sri Lanka". Satp.org. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  11. ^ Eelam War IV: Imminent End.
  12. ^ Tamils mark 25-years of Tiger sacrifice Tamilnet .
  13. ^ 4073 LTTE cadres killed in ongoing battle.
  14. ^ "Sri Lankan experience proves nothing is impossible". The Sunday Observer. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN". ABC Australia. 20 May 2009. 
  16. ^ "UNHCR Overview: IDPs in Sri Lanka". 
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference voas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference tonline1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Mahr, Krista. "Sri Lanka to Start Tally of Civil-War Dead" – via world.time.com. 
  20. ^ See here for related references.
  21. ^ "International Commission of Jurists Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Sri Lanka" (PDF). International Commission of Jurists. April 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  22. ^ "Ceasefire raises Sri Lankan peace hopes". The Guardian. London. 22 February 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  23. ^ "Sri Lanka's war seen far from over". Amal Jayasinghe. Agence France-Presse. 14 July 2007. 
  24. ^ "Sri Lankan Government Finds Support From Buddhist Monks". The New York Times. 26 February 2007. 
  25. ^ "Government takes policy decision to abrogate failed CFA". Ministry of Defence. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  26. ^ "Sri Lanka Navy destroys the 10th LTTE arms ship 1700 km off Dondra". Sri Lanka Navy. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007. 
  27. ^ Sri Lankan Forces Capture Last Major Rebel Base in Northeast Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Bloomberg.
  28. ^ From correspondents in Colombo (17 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat in civil war after 37-year battle". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  29. ^ Haviland, Charles (13 March 2010). "Sri Lanka Tamil party drops statehood demand". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  30. ^ Burke, Jason (14 March 2010). "Sri Lankan Tamils drop demand for separate independent homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  31. ^ Perera, Amrith Rohan. "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation". 

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